Hawaiian Royal Hats Part III: Bayonet Constitution and Illegal Overthrow

We continue with the third installment of a series on Hawaiian royal hats today by longtime reader Jake Short. You can find Jake on Instagram or Twitter and can link back to any of his previous guests posts at the bottom. Thanks, Jake for this fascinating series!

Bayonet Constitution

While Queen Kapi‘olani and sister Princess Lili‘uokalani were in Europe attending Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee in 1887, King Kalākaua faced more dire circumstances. The Hawaiian League (a secret society that formed in early 1887 with the purpose of annexing Hawaii to the United States) and American businessmen controlled a vast majority of the Hawaiian Kingdom’s wealth at the time. On  June 30, 1887, the Honolulu Rifles (white soldiers who had become the secret military arm of the Hawaiian League) and Reformed Party politicians joined forces, demanding that King Kalākaua dismiss his loyal Cabinet and endorse a new constitution stripping him of his personal authority and transferring power to the legislature and cabinet of the government.

Pre-1874 portrait of King Kalākaua

King Kalākaua found himself with no choice but to comply with these demands. Within a week, a new constitution was drafted by lawyers all associated with the Hawaiian League. The king signed it on July 6, 1887 under duress (multiple sources suggest he genuinely believed his life was in danger if he did not) but it was never ratified in the Hawaiian legislature. Because of the force used to gain Kalākaua’s cooperation, it became widely known as the “Bayonet Constitution.”

The Bayonet Constitution allowed the Hawaiian monarch to appoint a cabinet but placed that cabinet under the sole authority of the legislature. It also required any executive actions of the monarch receive cabinet approval. Voting rights were denied to naturalized Asians and vastly restricted for many native Hawaiians, leaving power in the hands of American and European men, most of whom were already profiting greatly from their business interests on the island kingdom.

Illegal Overthrow

In late 1890, King Kalākaua traveled to California, officially for health reasons but possibly also for further political negotiations with the United States. 

Already unwell, he died on January 20 ,1891 and his sister Lili‘uokalani succeeded him as Hawai‘i’s first Queen Regnant. Queen Lili‘uokalani is among the most photographed hatted Hawaiian royals.

In the first year of her reign she toured all the islands in the Kingdom. During a visit to Waimānalo on O‘ahu, she and her retinue wore a variation of the feminine boater popular at the end of the Victorian era.

In an undated photograph, she wears a beautiful pleated fabric hat with ostrich feather trim. 

A learned intellectual and effective governmental leader, Lili‘uokalani was also a composer of at least 165 songs, the most famous being “Aloha ‘Oe”. You can listen to it here

In early 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani tried to overrule the Bayonet Constitution with the introduction of a new constitution that would restore the power of the monarchy and voting rights of the economically disenfranchised. Threatened by this, the pro-American Western elites, bolstered by the landing of US Marines to protect American interests, overthrew the monarchy on January 17,1893.

Despite U.S. President Cleveland’s administration’s conclusion that the overthrow was illegal and condemnation of the use of U.S. troops in the takeover, the Republic of Hawai‘i was declared on July 4, 1894. Six months later, a rebellion was launched with the aim of restoring the queen and the monarchy. Its failure led to the arrest of many of the participants and monarchist sympathizers, including the queen herself. Imprisoned in an upstairs bedroom at Iolani Palace, she creatively broke through the embargo of political information around her by requesting daily hula performances. She was granted this seemingly innocent request, her captors oblivious to the updates and information conveyed to her each day through the dance! 

On January 24, 1895 Queen Liliʻuokalani abdicated her throne in return for the release (and commutation of the death sentences) of her jailed supporters, officially ending the deposed monarchy. The Hawaiian League met their ultimate goal in 1898 when the republic was annexed by the U.S.;  the territory became the 50th U.S. state in 1959.

In the years after her overthrow, Queen Lili‘uokalani dressed like most of her contemporaries in the late Victoria and Edwardian fashions of the day.  

Embed from Getty Images

King Kalākaua’s order of succession decreed Lili‘uokalani’s successor was to be his niece, Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani.

Ka‘iulani traveled to the U.K. in 1889 at age 13 to pursue a British education in the hopes it would better prepare her to become queen. During her studies abroad, news of her aunt’s deposition arrived and Crown Princess Ka‘iulani traveled to the U.S. to draw support of her Kingdom’s independence. Her education, articulation, and fashionable appearance endeared her to many despite the heavily racist attitudes of the time.

Her efforts were unfortunately in vain and she returned to Europe for a few more years of study before traveling home to Hawai‘i in 1897. As a way to help secure the line of succession for future generations,Queen Lili‘uokalani asked Princess Ka‘iulani to marry one of three men: Prince David Kawānanakoa, Prince Jonah Kūhiō, or Prince Komatsu Akihito (half-brother of Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito, who King Kalākaua tried to arrange a marriage with in 1881). Ka‘iulani chose Prince David Kawānanakoa but sadly, she died at age 23 in 1899 before they married.

Here is an excellent overview of Queen Lili‘uokalani’s life and reign (featuring lots of great Hawaiians hats!)

Thank you Jake, for another insightful installment in this series and this look at the very unfortunate end of this royal house. 

Jake returns next Wednesday with the fourth installment in this series. His previous guest posts at Royal Hats include: 

Hawaiian Royal Hats Part I   
Hawaiian Royal Hats Part II: World Tour and Golden Jubilee
Men’s Royal Hats
Royal Men’s Hats: Fedoras and Trilbys
Royal Men’s Hats: Caps and Berets
Royal Men’s Hats: Pork Pies, Hombergs, Boaters, Bowlers and the Rest
Recommend Hat Repeats for  Queen Elizabeth
Recommend Hat Repeats for Queen Máxima Part I and Part II
Recommend Hat Repeats for Queen Margrethe
Recommend Hat Repeats for Queen Mathilde

Images from Getty and social media as indicated; photo collection of Queen Liliuokalani

Hawaiian Royal Hats Part II: World Tour and Golden Jubilee

We continue our series on Hawaiian royal hats today with a second installment presented by longtime reader Jake Short. You can find Jake on Instagram or Twitter and can link back to any of his previous guests posts at the bottom. Welcome back, Jake!

World Tour

After being the first reigning monarch to visit the U.S. in 1874-1875, King Kalākaua embarked on an ambitious world tour in 1881 and was the first monarch to circumnavigate the earth.

Embed from Getty Images Embed from Getty Images

He began his travels with a stop in Japan, becoming the first foreign head of state to visit the previously isolationist nation. This trip included a proposal from King Kalākaua to Emperor Meiji that his young niece Victoria Ka‘iulani (daughter of his sister Miriam Likelike, seen here in a smaller Victorian hat) would have an arranged marriage with Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito, a member of a cadet branch of the Japanese Imperial Family. While nothing came of this proposal, the possibility of what could’ve been remains fascinating (the video claims Prince Yorihito was a son of Emperor Meiji, but he was instead a cousin to the main imperial line).

Kalākaua continued westward, meeting King Chulalongkorn of Siam (Thailand), Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor in Malaysia, Khedive Tewfik Pasha of Egypt, King Umberto I and Queen Margherita of Italy, and Pope Leo XIII before arriving in Great Britain. At Windsor Castle, Kalākaua was formally presented to Queen Victoria, the Prince andPrincess of Wales (future King Edward VII), and the Crown Prince andCrown Princess of Germany (future Kaiser Friedrich III). Afterwards he traveled to Belgium and met King Leopold II, then the future Kaiser Wilhelm II in Berlin, and finally King Luís I in Portugal. From Europe the King traveled to the United States where he met Thomas Edison and discussed electrifying the street lighting of Honolulu. Kalākaua returned to Hawai‘i at the end of October 1881, 281 days after he first left. The European monarchies’ elaborate styles influenced the final construction and decoration of ‘Iolani Palace, the only royal palace in America today.

Embed from Getty Images

Before and during Kalākaua’s reign there were ideas put forward to create a Polynesian federation to protect against further Western aggression in the region. It was proposed Hawai`i to lead the group including the Kingdoms of Tonga, Samoa, Tahiti, and more (although not Aotearoa New Zealand).

In another random connection with European royalty, King Kalākaua privately entertained unknown royals in 1889 who were traveling incognito as the Count and Countess de Bardi, all wearing hats and clothing typical of the late Victorian era.Since Prince Henry of Bourbon-Parma (son of duke Charles III of Parma) and Infanta Adelgundes of Portugal (daughter of King Miguel of Portugal)  held subsidiary titles of Count and Countess of Bardi, they seem a strong possibility.

Golden Jubilee

Six years after King Kalākaua’s world tour, his wife Queen Kapi‘olani and sister Princess Lili‘uokalani traveled to the United Kingdom to attend the events surrounding Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee in June of 1887 with a plan to tour Europe afterwards. Unfortunately, their European tour was later cancelled upon hearing about the Bayonet Constitution forced upon Kalākaua, something we’ll look at in closer detail in the next post. On their way, they visited President Grover Cleveland in Washington, D.C.

Embed from Getty Images

Once in the U.K., Queen Kapi‘olani was photographed in an unusually shaped, very tall hat:

while Lili‘uokalani was photographed wearing a bonnet hat (seated second from right below) typical of that time. 

Queen Kapi`olani and Princess Lili`uokalani wore formal gowns with feathers and motifs representing their native land that so impressed Queen Victoria, she requests official portraits of them be taken. It’s worth noting that the Hawaiian royals were among 54 foreign monarchs, royals, and nobles represented at the Golden Jubilee, and were 2 of only 12 not from Europe.

Queen Kap’iloani

Embed from Getty Images

Thank you Jake, for another fascinating look at a royal house and time in history that deserves our attention. If I may add another detail-  the Iolani Palace in Honolulu has an excellent Alii Garment Reproduction Collection. One of their more recent additions is an incredible reproduction of Queen Kapiolani’s coronation gown and robe, painstakingly researched and recreated by Hawaiian designer Kini Zamora. If you find yourself in Honolulu, I highly recommend leisurely visits to both the Iolani Palace and the Bishop Museum!

Jake returns next Wednesday with the third installment in this series. His previous guest posts at Royal Hats include: 

Hawaiian Royal Hats Part I   
Men’s Royal Hats
Royal Men’s Hats: Fedoras and Trilbys
Royal Men’s Hats: Caps and Berets
Royal Men’s Hats: Pork Pies, Hombergs, Boaters, Bowlers and the Rest
Recommend Hat Repeats for  Queen Elizabeth
Recommend Hat Repeats for Queen Máxima Part I and Part II
Recommend Hat Repeats for Queen Margrethe
Recommend Hat Repeats for Queen Mathilde

Images from Getty and social media as indicated; The Bishop Museum;